Core clew: dunhuang dunhuang clay sculpture clay sculpture history: the wei jin southern and northern dynasties in dunhuang mogao grottoes mural for its rich and become the brightest part of dunhuang art, but in terms of grotto art, architecture, small sculptures, wall dunhuang dunhuang clay sculpture clay sculpture history: the wei jin southern and northern dynasties in dunhuang mogao grottoes mural for its rich and become the brightest part of dunhuang art, but in terms of grotto art, architecture, and small sculptures, murals are interdependent unified whole, in which small part is due to the main gods enshrined Buddhism sculpture, in a prominent place in the grottoes, it is the theme of the grotto art.
The mogao grottoes because of sand rock, loose texture, unfavorable and carving, so the Buddha to apply more clay sculpture.
Now save to the wei jin southern and northern dynasties period of about 729, painted sculpture 'shadow model' 456 of them.
From the perspective of the change of style, can be roughly divided into two stages, emperor xiaowen taihe restructuring as boundaries.
Before the restructuring work style to keep more foreign Buddha traces of art;
After the restructuring of modelling of figure of Buddha is more affected by central plains 'show bone like' artistic style.
Small statues in the grottoes position plays a dominant role in the grotto art, grottoes murals around the statue.
Buddha bodhisattva threat to have commonly shi wei jin southern and northern dynasties period, two bodhisattva in the form of a combination of a Buddha.
Maitreya like Buddha, Buddha, the stupa and etc. , early Buddha foot maitreya like as common.
Posture of the larger Buddha is usually placed in a wall, with the round gimmick, posture smaller Buddha placed in grottoes in two between north and south walls side or center square column 4 walls, model combined with round or shadows.
Put the position of the image is closely related to its status, god or a person with their different status in different angles, such as Buddha are placed in a positive image, and a certain type of font, seem to be sacred, bodhisattva is put in side way, Hu Renze to profile form.
North Korean small sculpture combination a Buddha appeared late, two disciples, two bodhisattva five body combination, gradually play a shop, in the sui and tang dynasties seven or nine body group portrait of combination.
As a central square column of 'bottom hole' to reduce, Buddha in the combination of fixed mode be placed in the wall.
This is also the course of the foreign culture gradually nationalization.
Clay sculpture craft characteristics of dunhuang dunhuang small sculpture two points, clay sculpture and painting on the production process, say again so colorful murals.
Clay sculpture stage except a few giant Buddha in the tang dynasty as the barren womb clay sculpture, are generally not made these wood, with straw, reed or achnatherum splendens strapping these outside, there are generally two plastic clay layer, the layer with grass mud thick plastic, outer with pulp mud mud or cotton fine plastic, mold, paint dry after completion.
Shadow plastic part of the general use plastic model first, and then posted on the walls, the paint after the embossing effect, this technology has both the function of the sculptures and murals, makes the three-dimensional sculptures and paintings on the walls of the two-dimensional more coordination in the combination of the grottoes and one integrated mass.
Statue roundy modelling, the form is given priority to with foreign Buddha powder in this structure, the type is stronger, and unified whole, but not precise enough.
Modelling techniques retained stone carving skill, not give full play to the clay sculpture own peculiar stretch properties.
A proportion of the statue of wei jin southern and northern dynasties period form a gradual process, the Buddha bodhisattva figure is slender, to the western wei dynasty because of the influence of the central plains aesthetic idea, exaggerated to the human body, and peak.
Dunhuang clay modelling style characteristics on the statue modelling characteristic, the statue of emperor xiaowen restructuring before, face oblong, nose is quite flat, long neck, shoulder wide flat chest, dress is right flat type or shoulder, bodhisattva comb updo, half-naked body, look dignified.
Affected by external influence as well as the northern minorities culture is heavier.
After emperor xiaowen restructuring, zhongyuan aesthetic idea to the dunhuang figures from modelling to clothing to full effect.
North and south gate enjoy hereditary high officials give the garrison, and have a family, cultural quality is very high, the advocation of delicate metaphysics, live aloof and independent, headstrong unruly life, and with thin for beauty, it is also a 'show bone like' the social foundation of aesthetic consciousness.
Influenced by the statue of flat form, slender neck, face slender, the overall image and do not break bone method, thin the expression ability of physical structure.
Statues clothing part also blended in the central plains han type clothes, wear/Ru figure of Buddha, after a set of double-breasted cassock, waist of the dress, my shoulders Sha towel to her chest, south of free and easy 'show bone like' during this period.
In the north end of their, as a result of the northern ethnic unity and strengthen cultural communication, the north and the south in the small sculpture 'short and brilliant' appeared on the modelling of new forms, the Buddha is big and strong, the face of the rich features, marked the mogao grottoes of artistic style and a transformation.
Wei jin southern and northern dynasties in Chinese history wars volatile era, the change of social political and economic impact and influence on culture, dunhuang, the location is relatively stable, because the greater the role of the cultural background of the grotto art influence, make the art of this period presents the appearance of variety.